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Federico Rivera Burrowes
Federico Rivera Burrowes
In this days we are very concerned about cloning. This essay will talk about the history of cloning, the current abilities, itís problems, and the ethical issues.
The first cloned animal was cloned by Hans Driesch in the late 1800ís. His goal was to prove that genetic material is not lost during the division of cells. The animal he cloned was a sea urchin; sea urchins have large embryo cells.
Driesch took a 2-celled embryo of a sea urchin and shook it in a beaker full of sea water. The 2 cells separated. Each cell grew identically and formed a separated sea urchin.
In 1902 an embryologist called Hans Speeman separated an embryo of 2 cells, of a salamander. Then he separated a single cell from a 16-celled embryo. In this experiment both the small and the big embryos developed into adult salamanders.
In 1986 two teams using nearly the same methods, very far from each other, said that they had cloned a mammal. One team was in England and the other one in America. The English team cloned the embryo of a sheep and the team in America cloned the embryo of a cow.
A scientist called Ian Welmut from the Roslyn institute of Scotland was assigned to produce a sheep that a certain chemical in itís milk. He worked with a Scottish team. They discovered that if they alter a sheepís adult cells and then clone them, they could clone a sheep with altered genes all around their bodies. Then they cloned two lambs, Megan and Moray. They were cloned from two sheep embryos. After that a lamb was born and she was cloned from a frozen mammary cell from another adult sheep. She was named Dolly.
A new technique for cloning has been discovered. It is called the Honolulu Technique. In Honolulu a mouse was cloned from cumulus cells; they are cells that surround the developing egg cells. The nucleus was taken from the cumulus cell and implanted in an egg cell of another mouse. The new cell was treated wi9th a chemical to make it grow and divide. The scientists repeated the process for three generations making 50 mice that are virtually identical. This new technique was 6 times better than the one of the Roslyn Institute. As cloning technology improves, more applications will be seen every day.
There are two kinds of problems for cloning. One is that many people donít approve it and the other kind is that it may cause problems on the thing being cloned. For example the cloning of humans. It has a problem that some people donít accept it but others do.
The arguments used against it are that Cloning might lead to an attempt to improve the human race. It could make new defects in the gene pool of humans, cloning is unsafe, and it might cause deformities in the offspring.
The arguments in defense of it are that cloning might enable infertile couples to have babies of their own, it might give couples that are going to have a child with deformities a chance to be born all right, and it could lead for new treatments for genetic diseases.
For the other kind of problem, problems on the thing being cloned that were caused by cloning, I have the example of a 51- yea old cloned calf that died. Itís death was caused by the cloning that created the animal. The animal died of a severe anemia, it had a huge decrease of hemoglobin. Another problem that cloning can cause is the decrease of vitamin D.
89% Of the people felt cloning humans was morally unacceptable
66% Of the people felt that cloning animals was unacceptable
and 69% of the people are scared of humans being cloned.
Many people think that humans should be made by god.
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"I once did a research paper on "cloning", i know alot on the subject and how it is being performed today. I think in your paper you should mention some ideas of human cloning and questions such as: What if human cloning is possible? or What is needed to clone a human?" -- Brian Welker, Normal , IL, U.S.A..
"i believe that cloning is a big issue, in my opinion, i think that cloning should be used but only to a certain extent. it should be used for necessary things and not worry about using cloning as something that is going to get out of hand" -- Tia.
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© 2000 Federico Rivera Burrowes
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